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Showing posts from May, 2018


We have great pleasure in presenting The College Study for the students worldwide. It is concise, comprehensive and dependable. This website is intended to serve as complete and self-contained work on essays, paragraphs, speeches, articles, study helping notes, history, letters, stories, grammar, quotes, applications, information technology, media, science, and miscellaneous topics. It should also serve as a handy compendium for all graduate and post-graduate college students. In preparation of this website, the authors have been guided by the following considerations:

That the language should be simple, idiomatic, clear and straightforward.
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That it covers a large number of topics so that with the suitable adjustment you could be used this content for various purposes.
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Essay on Pakistani Seasons

Our earth is a unique planet because it is the only living planet. It rotates on its axis at the speed of 1660 Km per hour around the sun. This revolution around the sun brings changes in seasons. The inclination or tilt of the earth also helps in the change of the seasons. There are different lengths of daylight at different times of the year for these seasons. Pakistan has many as six seasons, the summer, the rain, the autumn, the early winter, the winter, and the spring. Each season is rough of 2 months duration. Pakistan is a vast country and has many types of climates but primarily it is a hot and tropical country. The summer season begins from the month of April and lasts till the end of June. During the summer season, the days are long and nights short because the sun is right ovet the country. The days are very hot and the heat is sometimes unbearable. Activity on the fields and farms is much reduced. People sweat a lot and feel thirsty and get tired early with the slightest la

Short Paragraph on Competition

The conflict to outgrow a rival has had been the real spirit of competition amongst the humans through the ages. The great the rivalry, the stronger the competition. Men competing with one another produce greater results than they could achieve without the stimulus of competition. The energy inspired by competition is conspicuously displayed in every branch of life. Many instances may be quoted from history of the effects of emulation: The rivalry of Cicero and Hortensius in Rome, of Pitt and Fox in England. inspired greater oratorical effects than would have been made by these great speakers if they had not such formidable rivals to contend against. In the literary world we know that Thackeray was spurred on to write his best by admiration of Dickens, and by his determination to produce as good work as David Copperfield. These show that competition plays an important role in life. We can witness the spirit of competition incorporate in every field of our daily life. In commerce, compe

Short Paragraph on Civilization

Civilization means refinement of manner, improved arts, learning, and physical and moral culture. It implies the proper and an ordered way of living, so that our body, mind, and soul may develop. It means social organization. settled government, and fixed laws. Compare a civilized man with a rude savage, and you will understand the difference. The civilized man leads an active, healthy, and refined life. His surroundings are neat and orderly, his dress is comfortable and beautiful, and his relations with his fellow men are friendly and social. His mind is developed, and he can think of the past and the future, and he is always devising means for further progress. The savage, on the other hand, is dirty, lazy. thoughtless, cruel, has no sense of duty or beauty; in fact, he cannot think at all. He lives in rudely fashioned huts or caves, and is satisfied with what he has, and what he is. A civilized man is progressive, and lives a higher life. A savage, on the other hand, lives a life no

The Future of Democracy in Pakistan: Hopes and Hurdles

The future of democracy has been perhaps the most widely discussed topics in the intellectual circles of Pakistan over the last couple of years. Despite the country entering 70th year of its independence, the democratic system is still unable to take strong roots in the country. Factors Responsible for the Failure The country is still unable to enjoy the dividends of democracy being enjoyed by the masses in the Western countries. Needless to say, this inability is due to the fact that the socio-economic and political environment of the country is miserably replete with many factors which have played an overwhelming role in the failure of democracy to grow in its true spirit, hence making the future of democracy in Pakistan bleak. The presence of irritants like troubled civil-military relations, complex inter-mingling of religion and politics coupled with deep-rooted religious extremism has contributed significantly to the weakening of the roots of democratic system in the country. Prev

Short Paragraph on Liberty

Liberty means freedom. In other words absence of restrictions and limitations. But it does not mean that there should be no restrictions. If we look back at the past we come to know that in England, many peasants were bound to the soil, could only change their habitation with the consent of their lord, and were compelled to render him agricultural service whenever he required them. No subjects of the State possessed any vote or power of expressing their approval or disapproval of the actions taken hy those in authority. Their overlords could, without fear or redress, punish them unjustly or defraud them. To make it clear we can quote an example. The Great Charter granted by King John has always been viewed as the basis of English liberty. It granted extended freedom of commerce, forbade the selling, denying or delaying of justice and the arbitrary spoliation of life. liberty and property. Gradually the people by continual struggle won for themselves a voice in public affairs, the right

Paragraph on Pen is Mightier Than the Sword

Outline: What is “the pen” a what i.e the word” here? What have great writers and artists done for their nations? What nations have been made great by soldiers? Can two such things really be compared? By the “pen,” we may understand all the fine arts, literature, painting, music, philosophy, all the peaceful arts which men have pride in. By the “sword”, we are to understand the art of war, the work that is done by soldiers and military leaders. We are asked to compare the two and say which is better. Is such a comparison possible? It is certainly difficult since the two do not work in competition with each other. The work of great writers and philosophers is to elevate men. The fine arts raise the standards of civilisation, bring in finer ideals and nobler culture. Men like Shakespeare, Shelley, Dante, Goethe, and Iqbal are the pride of their countrymen. They are shinging lights in the history of a people. But, one may ask, “Could these men have saved their nations in time of war? Are

Paragraph on Examination System In Pakistan

Outline: Introduction. Are they real test of intelligence? Alternatives. Conclusion. Examinations have become a very important and essential feature of our academic institutions. Indeed the institutions will be meaningless without examinations. The work of students is now determined by their success in examinations. Students in our country are almost obsessed with the fear and anxiety associated with their examinations. So grave is their concern and outlook on examinations that some seek their graves when they fail. Examinations have become the greatest stumbling block to the normal and healthy development” of our youths. There is an unnatural excitement and feverish haste of preparations before a few days of the examinations and young men and women spoil their health and appetite by overworking and under eating during the days of the examinations. And when at last they are over, the students forget everything they have feverishly read and become blank in their minds and memories. For

Short Paragraph on Dreams (663 Words)

Dreams are very different from waking life, but it is extremely difficult clearly to define in what the difference consists. When we are dreaming, we are nearly always convinced that we are awake, and in some cases real experiences have been mistaken for dreams. The latter mistake forms the subject of a celebrated Spanish play called Life a Dream, and of an amusing story in the Arabian Mights, in which a poor, man is for a jest treated as a mighty monarch, and it is contrived that he should afterwards think that all the honourable treatment he had actually received was merely a vivid dream. Sometimes even after waking, we may be doubtful whether our dream was a reality or not especially if we happen to fall asleep in our chair and do not remember the circumstance of having fallen to sleep. Of course this doubt can only arise when there has been nothing in our dream that seems impossible to our wakened mind. It is, however, only in rare cases that a dream exactly copies the experience o

Paragraph on the Chief Defects in Our Educational System

 Outline: Introduction. Defects of the system. Remedies for the same. Conclusion. No human system can be wholly good and perfect. This is as true of our educational system as of any other system. But our educational system suffers more because, really speaking, it is not our system at all. It is the system devised by the English rulers of Pakistan It was imposed upon us for a definite purpose. That purpose was to prepare Pakistan is to help the British in the government and administration of our own country. In other words, the educated Pakistani was not to be really educated but only efficient and loyal in serving the cause of his masters. This is the meaning of the statement, often made, that our educational system produces only clerks and counting machines. In short, our educational system is essentially antinational in conception. It is foreign in spirit and expensive in practice. This is its chief defect and from it follow all other defects. This outstanding basic defect has resul

Paragraph on Advantages and Drawbacks of Country Life

Outline: Fresh air, vegetables, quiet life, healthy labour. Beautiful scenery, peace and calm, soothing influence of Nature on the mind. Lack of good schools, hospitals and doctors, amusements. Limited employment. Summing up, for and against. Writers especially poets, have always tended to glorify the life of Nature. Shakespeare praises the life of men, “Under the Greenwood Tree”, where there are no enemies except the cold winds of winter. It cannot be denied that there are many benefits in country life. The villager wakes to breathe the fresh air from the fields and woods, instead of the stale city odours. He gets vegetables and fruit fresh from the fields, instead of old and withered after lying on a stall in the market. His work in the fields is health-giving and his sleep at night is deep and untroubled by noise. During the hours of day, the beauty of natural scenery soothes and gladdens his mind. Instead of the tramcars and the hooting of motor-cars, he hears the songs of the bird

Paragraph on a Young Horses Recollections

Outline:- The first place was a large meadow. While young I lived upon my mother’s milk. My master a good kind man. The first place that I can well remember was a large pleasant meadow with a pond of clear water in it. Some shady trees leaned over it, and reeds and water lilies grew at the deep end. Over the hedge, on one side we looked into a plowed field, and on the other we looked over a gate at our master’s house, which stood by the roadside, at the top of the meadow was a plantation of fir trees, and at the bottom, a running brook. Whilst I was young, I lived upon my mother’s milk, as I could not eat grass. In the day-time I ran by her side, and at night I lay down close by her. When it was used to stand by the pond in the shade of the trees, and when it was cold we had a nice warm shed near the plantation. As soon as I was old enough to eat grass, my mother used to go out to work in the day time, and come back in the evening. Our master was a good kind man. He gave us good food,

Paragraph on Advantages and Drawbacks of Town Life

Outline: Good shops, schools, sanitation, water supply, medical services. Social life and entertainments. Drawbacks, inipure air, dust, noise, riots, etc. On balance, town life has something to its credit. In comparing town and country life, those who are town dwellers tend to idealize country life. It is held to be a peaceful and trouble-free existence, “far from the maddening crowd.” But the experience of a village often shows that this is not quite a true picture. In a town, one has an excellent service of shops and markets from which to purchase all the things necessary for life. There are fine schools for the education of the young, as well as colleges and night, classes. The majority of large towns have now a drainage system, as well as a carefully purified water supply. Anti-malarial measures have removed the mosquito so that the town-dweller has no fever from mosquito bites nor dysentery from bad water. There are good medical officers and hospitals, so in practice, the town-dwe

Short Paragraph on the Cinema as a Rival of the Stage

Outline: The modern cinema a very popular form of entertainment. The cost and trouble of producing a big film. The cinema is now driving the regular theatre out. Some reasons for this. The cinema is now very popular form of entertainment and even the smallest town has no its “picture-house”. In the old days (not so old, either) of the silent films, it did not seem at all likely that the cinema would be a serious rival of the theatre; but the modern “talkies”, with their splendid moving-pictures, their music, their light effects, and their good reproduction of the human voice, have been brought to such a pitch of perfection that they have become far more popular than the regular theatres. The production of these films has now become a huge and lucrative business; and a great film costs thousands of pounds to produce. Take a Shakespearian play, or a story representing scenes in Africa, Pakistan, or the Wild West of America. A company of actors and actresses has to be maintained to act th

Paragraph on Is life for us better than it was for our forefathers?

Outline: Think back two hundred years ago. Our forefathers had none of the modern inventions and conveniences. In comfort, convenience, variety, health and well-being we are superior today. But we are not happier, for all our great advantages. To try to answer this question, we had better go back in thought about two hundred years, say to about the middle of the 18th Century; that is, before the great changes began that have made the modern world what it is today. Let us see what life for our forefathers in those days. To get a picture of their lives, we must cut out many of the things which are so familiar and necessary to us today that we wonder how men could ever have got on without them. Take travel, for instance. In the time of our forefathers, there were no railways or steamships or aero planes no bicycles or motor-cars, or even good roads. They travelled slowly on horseback or in carts and carriages, and sailing ships. There was no postal system, so letters were rare and costly

Short Paragraph on Why We Are Taxed

Outline: The duties of the government of a country. Much money is needed by the government to carry on its work. As the work is for the benefit of public, the public must find money. So taxation necessary and justified. Every country must have a government of some sort, or life would be impossible. The primary duties of a government are to protect the life property of the citizens, to maintain law and order, to settle disputes between citizens in a just and orderly way through the law courts, to make and maintain the roads and highways, and to defend the country from foreign foes. Besides all this, many governments maintain and direct education, provide hospitals for the sick, and attend to sanitation. Now all these great public duties need money. An army and navy have to be kept up; the police force and the judges have to be paid; schools have to be provided and teachers supported; expert health officers and sanitary engineers employed. The big government departments, that have to ove

Short Paragraph on The Census

Outline: What a census is, and what information it collects. The usefulness of the census to the government. How a census is taken. Objections made by some to the census. A census is an official numbering of the inhabitants of a country at a certain time, made by government order. In England a census is made every ten years. The main object of a census is to give the government of a country accurate information as to the number of the inhabitants. But at the same time much additional information is collected, so the government may know the number of men, women and children, their ages, occupations and nationality, the number of those married, and of the deaf, the blind, the dumb, and the imbecile. In some countries, too, the number of the adherents of each form of religion is ascertained. The census is obviously very useful, for it provides the government with a mass of information, which is of great use, not only for the purposes of taxation, but also for legislation on social questio

Paragraph on God Helps Those Who Help Themselves

Outline: Hercules and the carter. Men who rose by self-help. William Quarrier, founder of Quarrier’s Homes. His childhood of poverty. His early vow. His success in business. The fulfillment of his vow. Every child knows the old fable of the carter whose wagon stuck in the mud, and who prayed to Hercules, the god of strength, to get it out for him. Hercules answered the prayer with, “Put your own should to the wheel, man!” The carter took the advice, and he and his bullocks got the wagon out of the rut. There are in real life many better illustrations of the truth of the saying, “God helps those who helps themselves.” There are many inspiring life-stories of men who by their own unaided efforts fought their way up from poverty and hardship to success and fame. It was their own pluck, patience, perseverance and industry that in the end made them the men they became. Take the story of William Quarrier, the founder of a great orphanage near Glasgow, that has rescued thousands of poor orpha

Paragraph on Does Right Prevail Over Might

Outline: This is a difficult and philosophic problem. Does right always prevail? Does might defeat itself? Is it possible sometimes that Might is also Right? Can we give an answer to such complicated questions? We see in the working of the world that Might is a very great force in the relations between living creatures. The tiger eats the deer and the hawk preys on the partridge. From this we might argue that, “Might is Right” seems to be a law of Nature. The inequality which we observe in human relations bears out this argument. If a poor man breaks a law, he is arrested and punished; let a rich man do the same thing and the officers of the law will contrive to be looking the other way. There is a very comforting belief that right will always prevail, in the long run. Unfortunately it does not seem to happen at all times. Persecution has often been successful and has attained its object against innocent people. The Waldenses a Protestant sect who stood out against the persecution of C

Paragraph on the Autobiography of a Zoo Tiger

Outline: The tiger was born in a Mysore jungle. Early days. Protected by the parents for months. Then the beat. Death of mother and escape of father. Terror in being brought to zoo. Desire for jungles. The comfort and safety of this life can never make up for the loss of freedom. I was born in a cave, formed by an overhanging rock, in a jungle not far from Mysore, towards the foothills of the Nilgiris. There was another brother and a sister, and my first recollections are of how the three of us would roll and play together over the flanks of my striped and powerful mother. Sometimes that Lord of the jungle, my father, came to see us, bringing part of a bullock or a sambur which he had killed. We had killed. We loved to see him, and we enjoyed the strong meat, but my mother was always a little suspicious of his visits, and did not like him to come too near us. I wonder why? What happy days when we used to bask in the sun in the mouth of the cave! Then we were allowed to make little jour

Paragraph on Is General Disarmament Practicable?

Outline: The present armament race, and danger of war. Yet nobody wants to go to war. It is fear and distrust that is the cause of the armament race. Nothing will make general disarmament possible but a change of heart. When the first Great War ended in 1918, all were agreed that such a disaster must never be allowed to fall on the world again. The League of Nations was, formed to prevent it; and in 1928 many nations signed the Kellogg Pact, solemnly promising never to resort to war to settle international disputes. Conferences were held to arrange a reduction of armaments, and even the abolishing of armaments together, England even set an example of partially disarming, at great risk to herself. But she was not followed by other nations; and the old, vicious arms race began again. How does the world stand today? Two wars are actually raging, one in the West and one in the East. The nations are once more armed to the teeth. Europe is again an armed camp; and only this year it was on th

Short Paragraph on Manual Training

Outline: Meaning of manual training. The object of manual training is to make the movements of the hands automatic. For example, learning to type. This accomplished by constant practice. Manual training in social education. The word “manual” comes from the Latin words for a “hand” manus. Manual works in hand work, and a manual worker is one who works with his hands. So manual training is “hand-training”, training a person to use his hands rightly in a particular kind of work. Manual training consists mainly in constant practice, or the repeating over and over again of certain movements of the hands until they become what we call automatic. When we first begin to learn any manual work (such as carpentry, carving, spinning, weaving, typewriting, sewing, knitting, and so on), we have to think carefully of every movement, and do it with careful and conscious attention. And at that stage our hands are clumsy and awkward, and do not answer quickly to the orders of the brain. In consequence,

Paragraph on College Magazine and Their Uses

Outline: A good college magazine. Encourages composition and authorship. faster expertise corps Keeps former students interested in the old college. Necessity of careful editing. Most colleges have their own magazines, edited by one of the students or a member of the staff, and made up of articles written mainly by the students themselves. They may be good, bad or indifferent: but a good college magazine may serve several useful purposes. First a college magazine encourages the students to practice writing by affording opportunities to budding authors to see their compositions printed. A young man who will take little interest in doing a set of composition exercises in class, will put forth his best efforts when he knows that his composition will appear in print. It gives him a real thrill to see something that he was written appearing as an article in a printed magazine. To bring forth the best efforts, prizes are sometimes offered for the best articles. Next, a college magazine, well

Paragraph on Commerce as a Means of Spreading Civilization

Outline: The spread of ancient Egyptian Egean civilization by commerce. The East India Company and India. The opening up of Africa and Japan. The evils connected with spread of civilization by trade. Missions, and sometimes conquest, less objectionable. Civilization has been carried from one country to another by conquest and religious missions, but perhaps mostly by commerce. In ancient times, it was, probably, Egyptian traders that brought civilization flourished 2000 years before Christ. Probably, trade, through the Phoenicians carried that civilization to Greece, and to all the lands around the Mediterranean Sea. It was not only Roman arms, but also Roman commerce, that civilized many barbarian nations under Roman sway; later, it was not only the military power, but also the commerce of the Arabs that brought eastern civilization to many lands, and to Europe. In more modern times, it was trade which led to Portuguese, the Dutch, the French and the English to India and the East. The

Short Paragraph on the Belief in Astrology

Outline:- Not only the poor, but even rich men believe. The science dates from very ancient times. Shakespeare’s works have many allusions to this. But science does not admit any force in it. It is usually the custom, among a section of Hindus to have the horoscope of a child drawn up at birth by an astrologer. In the large cities, many profess this old art, and advertise claims in the local press to foretell the future and to give advice regarding business, love affairs, and such things. While the uneducated people are the greatest believers, even well-to-do citizens are not above going to such men for their guidance. Reliable or otherwise, it is a scientific study on regular lines, and the training of an astrologer is long and thorough. It is know, from old writings and inscriptions on pillars, that the ancient Egyptians and the Chaldees practiced the cult of astrology. They studied the phases of the planets, and left charts with the different signs of the Zodiac. A man’s life was th

Short Paragraph on War Settles Nothing

Nothing is probably more horrible than the scene of war. It is not the death of millions of lives but it is their manner of dying which strikes terror into the heart and creates disgust in the very soul of humanity. When people die hy millions in the battlefield, it is but natural that many children are rendered homeless, many woman are made widows and many parents are deprived of their sons. The very separation between husbands and wives, between brothers and sisters, between parents and children is a painful sight. These are the after-effects of every war. But warfare in modern days is a more horrible affair than it used to be in the days of yore when people used to fight only with the bow and arrow, the sword and the battle-ax, the lance and the javelin. But now there are the machine gun, the torpedo, the submarine, the depth charge, the mustard gas, the air-bomber, the tank and so many other latest destructive inventions of science. There is no escape from destruction in land, wate